Please Note: This article is written for users of the following Microsoft Excel versions: 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016, 2019, and Excel in Office 365. If you are using an earlier version (Excel 2003 or earlier), this tip may not work for you. For a version of this tip written specifically for earlier versions of Excel, click here: Adding Dashes between Letters.

by Allen Wyatt
(last updated May 2, 2019)

Scott wonders how he can make Excel automatically add a dash between every letter in a given cell. As an example, if cell A1 contains "house", Scott would like to convert it to "h-o-u-s-e".

This can be done with a formula, but it quickly becomes unwieldy. For instance, the following formula can be used to put dashes between the letters of whatever you type into cell A1:

```=CHOOSE(LEN(A1),A1,LEFT(A1,1) & "-" & RIGHT(A1,1),
LEFT(A1,1) & "-" & MID(A1,2,1) & "-" & RIGHT(A1,1),
LEFT(A1,1) & "-" & MID(A1,2,1) & "-" & MID(A1,3,1) & "-"
& RIGHT(A1,1),LEFT(A1,1) & "-" & MID(A1,2,1) & "-"
& MID(A1,3,1) & "-" & MID(A1,4,1) & "-" & RIGHT(A1,1),
LEFT(A1,1) & "-" & MID(A1,2,1) & "-" & MID(A1,3,1)
& "-" & MID(A1,4,1) & "-" & MID(A1,5,1) & "-" & RIGHT(A1,1))
```

This particular example of a formula will only work on text up to six characters in length. Thus, it would work properly for "house", but not for "household". The formula could be lengthened but, again, it would quickly become very long.

A better approach is to use a macro to do the conversion. If you want to insert the dashes right into the cell, you could use a macro such as this:

```Sub AddDashes1()
Dim Cell As Range
Dim sTemp As String
Dim C As Integer

For Each Cell In Selection
sTemp = ""
For C = 1 To Len(Cell)
sTemp = sTemp + Mid(Cell, C, 1) + "-"
Next
Cell.Value = Left(sTemp, Len(sTemp) - 1)
Next
End Sub
```

This macro is designed to be used on a selected range of cells. Just select the cells you want to convert, and then run the macro. The dashes are added between each letter in the cells.

If you prefer to not modify the original cell values, you could create a user-defined function that would do the job:

```Function AddDashes2(Src As String) As String
Dim sTemp As String
Dim C As Integer

Application.Volatile
sTemp = ""
For C = 1 To Len(Src)
sTemp = sTemp + Mid(Src, C, 1) + "-"
Next
AddDashes2 = Left(sTemp, Len(sTemp) - 1)
End Function
```

To use this function, you would use the following in your worksheet:

```=AddDashes2(A1)
```

If you want to make sure that the function is a bit more robust, you could modify it so that it handles multiple words. In such an instance you would not want it to treat a space as a "dashable letter." For example, you would want the routine to add dashes to "one two" so it came out as "o-n-e t-w-o" instead of "o-n-e- -t-w-o". The following variation on the function will do the trick:

```Function AddDashes3(Src As String) As String
Dim sTemp As String
Dim C As Integer

Application.Volatile
sTemp = ""
For C = 1 To Len(Src)
sTemp = sTemp + Mid(Src, C, 1)
If Mid(Src, C, 1) <> " " And
Mid(Src, C + 1, 1) <> " " And
C < Len(Src) Then
sTemp = sTemp + "-"
End If
Next
End Function
```

Note:

If you would like to know how to use the macros described on this page (or on any other page on the ExcelTips sites), I've prepared a special page that includes helpful information. Click here to open that special page in a new browser tab.

ExcelTips is your source for cost-effective Microsoft Excel training. This tip (9634) applies to Microsoft Excel 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016, 2019, and Excel in Office 365. You can find a version of this tip for the older menu interface of Excel here: Adding Dashes between Letters.

##### Author Bio

Allen Wyatt

With more than 50 non-fiction books and numerous magazine articles to his credit, Allen Wyatt is an internationally recognized author. He is president of Sharon Parq Associates, a computer and publishing services company. ...

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What is nine more than 0?

2019-01-29 12:22:59

Willy Vanhaelen

@ryn
Although VBA allows to use the "+" sign to concatenate strings, it is strongly advised NOT to and use the ampersand "&" instead. In some circumstances the "+" can lead to erroneous results.
sTemp = sTemp + "-"
better use
sTemp = sTemp & "-"

They should have done it in the first place in this tip.

2019-01-28 08:17:08

ryn

But...why?+

2015-09-21 16:15:59

Rick Rothstein

We can address Perth's comment about the "dashes around spaces" issue as a "one liner" as well. The only issue is how much to increase the size of the space to make it look "balanced" with the rest of the expanded text. I chose to double the length of the spacer character(s) plus 1 and use that value for the number of spaces between words.

Function IBC(Strg As String, Spacer As String) As String
IBC = Replace(Join(Evaluate("TRANSPOSE(MID(""" & Strg & """,ROW(1:" & Len(Strg) & "),1))"), Spacer), Spacer & " " & Spacer, Space(1 + 2 * Len(Spacer)))
End Function

2015-09-21 15:59:54

Rick Rothstein

While longer, character-wise, than Micky's "simplest & shortest" UDF, I think the following is interesting because it is a "one-liner"...

Function IBC(Strg As String, Spacer As String) As String
IBC = Join(Evaluate("TRANSPOSE(MID(""" & Strg & """,ROW(1:" & Len(Strg) & "),1))"), Spacer)
End Function

2014-12-23 06:57:11

Michael (Micky) Avidan

@Peter,
Good solution.
Michael (Micky) Avidan
“Microsoft® Answers" - Wiki author & Forums Moderator
“Microsoft®” MVP – Excel (2009-2015)
ISRAEL

2014-12-22 17:26:09

Peter Atherton

@Micky
I took the liberty of altering your code slightly to accommodate various spacers, including spacers before and after the spacer character e.g. " - ".

Function IBC(Str, Spacer As String)
Dim stemp As String
stemp = Replace(Replace(StrConv(Str, 64), ChrW(0), Spacer), Spacer & " " & Spacer, " ")
IBC = Left(stemp, Len(stemp) - Len(Spacer))
End Function

I've also used a period and CHAR(7) as spacer; someone might try to use sume such.
Regards
Peter

2014-12-21 07:37:12

Peter Atherton

@Micky
Excellent, I knew you'd have a solution. I prefer the second replacement to have an extra space between words but that just me.

2014-12-07 08:28:49

Michael (Micky) Avidan

@Peter Atherton,
1) Just from looking at your revised code it seems as if you run your suggested UDF on: Micky Avidan
You'll get: M-i-c-k-y A-v-i-d-a-n
(Lot of spaces between the names).
2) If you'll alter my UDF into:
------------------------------------
Function IBC(Str, Spacer As String)
stemp = Replace(Replace(StrConv(Str, 64), ChrW(0), Spacer), "- -", " ")
IBC = Left(stemp, Len(stemp) - 1)
End Function
------------
You'll end up with a littler more appropriate result.
Michael (Micky) Avidan
“Microsoft® Answers" - Wiki author & Forums Moderator
“Microsoft®” MVP – Excel (2009-2015)
ISRAEL

2014-12-06 16:04:36

Peter Atherton

I tell a lie. I'd altered Dash spaces and included a new variable for the word spacer and not posted the code. My mistake. The revised code is:

Function AddDashes3(Src As String, Optional Spacer As String = " - ") As String
Dim stemp As String
Dim C As Integer, i As Integer
Dim Separator As String

Separator = chr(32) 'Space
For i = 1 To Len(Spacer)
Separator = Separator & chr(32)
Next

Application.Volatile
stemp = ""
For C = 1 To Len(Src)
stemp = stemp + Mid(Src, C, 1)
If Mid(Src, C, 1) <> " " And _
Mid(Src, C + 1, 1) <> " " And _
C < Len(Src) Then
stemp = stemp + Spacer
Else
stemp = stemp & Separator
End If
Next
End Function

2014-12-06 12:04:17

Peter Atherton

The only trouble with IBC it returns extra dashes. Txt:= Bream Julian
B-r-e-a-m J-u-l-i-a-n

Formula:=ibc(A11,"-") returns
B-r-e-a-m- -J-u-l-i-a-n

2014-12-06 11:53:04

Peter Atherton

Micky

Yes, really good

2014-12-06 10:59:27

Willy Vanhaelen

@Mickey

That is a very clever solution.

2014-12-05 11:52:06

Michael (Micky) Avidan

If I'm not mistaken - the following UDF is the simplest & shortest:
-----------------------------
Function IBC(Str, Spacer As String) ' In-Between Character
sTemp = Replace(StrConv(Str, 64), ChrW(0), Spacer)
IBC = Left(sTemp, Len(sTemp) - 1)
End Function
--------------
Michael (Micky) Avidan
“Microsoft® Answers" - Wiki author & Forums Moderator
“Microsoft®” MVP – Excel (2009-2015)
ISRAEL

2014-12-04 19:58:46

Peter Atherton

I think that there is a clause missing in the code; separated words need @ least two spaces. This version gives the opportunity to change the spacer.

Function AddDashes3(Src As String, Optional Spacer As String = "-") As String
Dim sTemp As String
Dim C As Integer

Application.Volatile
sTemp = ""
For C = 1 To Len(Src)
sTemp = sTemp + Mid(Src, C, 1)
If Mid(Src, C, 1) <> " " And _
Mid(Src, C + 1, 1) <> " " And _
C < Len(Src) Then
sTemp = sTemp + Spacer
Else
sTemp = sTemp & " "
End If
Next
End Function

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