Please Note: This article is written for users of the following Microsoft Excel versions: 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016, 2019, and Excel in Office 365. If you are using an earlier version (Excel 2003 or earlier), this tip may not work for you. For a version of this tip written specifically for earlier versions of Excel, click here: Adding Dashes between Letters.

Adding Dashes between Letters

by Allen Wyatt
(last updated November 16, 2019)


Scott wonders how he can make Excel automatically add a dash between every letter in a given cell. As an example, if cell A1 contains "house", Scott would like to convert it to "h-o-u-s-e".

This can be done with a formula, but it quickly becomes unwieldy. For instance, the following formula can be used to put dashes between the letters of whatever you type into cell A1:

=CHOOSE(LEN(A1),A1,LEFT(A1,1) & "-" & RIGHT(A1,1),
LEFT(A1,1) & "-" & MID(A1,2,1) & "-" & RIGHT(A1,1),
LEFT(A1,1) & "-" & MID(A1,2,1) & "-" & MID(A1,3,1) & "-"
& RIGHT(A1,1),LEFT(A1,1) & "-" & MID(A1,2,1) & "-"
& MID(A1,3,1) & "-" & MID(A1,4,1) & "-" & RIGHT(A1,1),
LEFT(A1,1) & "-" & MID(A1,2,1) & "-" & MID(A1,3,1)
& "-" & MID(A1,4,1) & "-" & MID(A1,5,1) & "-" & RIGHT(A1,1))

This particular example of a formula will only work on text up to six characters in length. Thus, it would work properly for "house", but not for "household". The formula could be lengthened but, again, it would quickly become very long.

A better approach is to use a macro to do the conversion. If you want to insert the dashes right into the cell, you could use a macro such as this:

Sub AddDashes1()
    Dim Cell As Range
    Dim sTemp As String
    Dim C As Integer

    For Each Cell In Selection
        sTemp = ""
        For C = 1 To Len(Cell)
            sTemp = sTemp & Mid(Cell, C, 1) & "-"
        Cell.Value = Left(sTemp, Len(sTemp) - 1)
End Sub

This macro is designed to be used on a selected range of cells. Just select the cells you want to convert, and then run the macro. The dashes are added between each letter in the cells.

If you prefer to not modify the original cell values, you could create a user-defined function that would do the job:

Function AddDashes2(Src As String) As String
    Dim sTemp As String
    Dim C As Integer

    sTemp = ""
    For C = 1 To Len(Src)
        sTemp = sTemp & Mid(Src, C, 1) & "-"
    AddDashes2 = Left(sTemp, Len(sTemp) - 1)
End Function

To use this function, you would use the following in your worksheet:


If you want to make sure that the function is a bit more robust, you could modify it so that it handles multiple words. In such an instance you would not want it to treat a space as a "dashable letter." For example, you would want the routine to add dashes to "one two" so it came out as "o-n-e t-w-o" instead of "o-n-e- -t-w-o". The following variation on the function will do the trick:

Function AddDashes3(Src As String) As String
    Dim sTemp As String
    Dim C As Integer

    sTemp = ""
    For C = 1 To Len(Src)
        sTemp = sTemp & Mid(Src, C, 1)
        If Mid(Src, C, 1) <> " " And
          Mid(Src, C + 1, 1) <> " " And
          C < Len(Src) Then
            sTemp = sTemp & "-"
        End If
    AddDashes3 = sTemp
End Function


If you would like to know how to use the macros described on this page (or on any other page on the ExcelTips sites), I've prepared a special page that includes helpful information. Click here to open that special page in a new browser tab.

ExcelTips is your source for cost-effective Microsoft Excel training. This tip (9634) applies to Microsoft Excel 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016, 2019, and Excel in Office 365. You can find a version of this tip for the older menu interface of Excel here: Adding Dashes between Letters.

Author Bio

Allen Wyatt

With more than 50 non-fiction books and numerous magazine articles to his credit, Allen Wyatt is an internationally recognized author. He is president of Sharon Parq Associates, a computer and publishing services company. ...


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What is 6 + 8?

2019-11-25 13:47:20


Aren't you an APL programmer :-) ?
The APL programmer's theorem states that "for each working program written in APL, there is a shorter one with exactly the same functionalities"
Of course, it's a joke (albeit...), but I agree with you, and quoting A. Pope : "There is a certain majesty in simplicity which is far above all the quaintness of wit" !

2019-11-20 13:52:55

Willy Vanhaelen

Result: m y   t i t l e

2019-11-20 13:51:34

Willy Vanhaelen

Usage: =SeparateText("my title"," ")
Result: m y t i t l e

2019-11-20 12:49:19

Willy Vanhaelen


Excellent idea. If you use a space as separator you can even use this macro as a title widener with the advantage that between words you get 3 spaces wich is more clear.

2019-11-19 18:25:41

Peter Atherton

I do like your short function. I woulf add a variable for the separator and this would address JC's concerns about maintaining it.

Function SeparateText(ByVal ref, Separator As String) As String
SeparateText = Replace(StrConv(ref, vbUnicode), Chr$(0), Separator, 1, Len(ref) - 1)
End Function

=SeparateText(A1," ")

2019-11-19 14:11:52

Willy Vanhaelen

For me it feels like simpler because it's shorter and more concise. But you are right, Allen's code is the traditional way to do it and easier to understand. In a way it is the "teacher's" approach.

But it is always interesting to show that a problem can mostly be solved in several ways. And generally, with Leonardo da Vinci's saying "Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication" in mind, I prefer the shorter and more concise ones :-)

2019-11-18 09:15:59


I find the "shorter" code interesting, but wouldn't call it "simpler". Wyatt's code is IMO easier to maintain.

2019-11-17 10:42:16

Willy Vanhaelen

Here is an even shorter and simpler one-line UDF:

Function AddDashes2(Src As String) As String
AddDashes2 = Replace(StrConv(Src, vbUnicode), Chr$(0), "-", 1, Len(Src) - 1)
End Function

Here is how it works, the variable Src (cell referred to) is TEST as an example:

StrConv(Src, vbUnicode) -> StrConv("TEST", vbUnicode)
Converts TEST to unicode so each letter takes 2 bytes instead of one.
The first byte is the ascii code of the letter, the second byte is Null or Chr$(0).
The result in the example is T_E_S_T_ (the underscores represent null or Chr$(0)
This last character is used as find argument for the Replace function:

Replace(StrConv(Src, vbUnicode), Chr$(0), "-", 1, Len(Src) - 1)
-> Replace("T_E_S_T_", Chr$(0), "-", 1, Len(Src) - 1)
The count argument in Replace is Len(Src) - 1 to eliminate the unwanted last dash.

Finaly T-E-S-T is returned as result.

This tip's first macro can also be simplified a lot:

Sub AddDashes1()
Dim cell As Range
For Each cell In Selection
cell = Replace(StrConv(cell, vbUnicode), Chr$(0), "-", 1, Len(cell) - 1)
Next cell
End Sub

2019-11-16 13:09:40

Willy Vanhaelen

Here is a one-liner for the AddDashes2 UDF:

Function AddDashes2(S As String) As String
End Function

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