Please Note: This article is written for users of the following Microsoft Excel versions: 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016, 2019, and Excel in Office 365. If you are using an earlier version (Excel 2003 or earlier), this tip may not work for you. For a version of this tip written specifically for earlier versions of Excel, click here: Determining a Random Value.
by Allen Wyatt
(last updated January 16, 2020)
VBA provides a function to return a random value. You wouldn't necessarily use this function by itself, but as part of a larger macro that may require the use of random values. The syntax for the function is as follows:
x = Rnd()
where x is the result. The value returned will always be between 0 and 1. To translate this to some other random value, all you need to do is multiply the result by the highest number you want to consider. For instance, if you wanted a random integer number between 1 and 25, you could use the following code line:
x = Int(25 * Rnd()) + 1
Since Rnd always returns a value between 0 and 1 (but never 1 itself), multiplying what it returns by 25 and then using the Int function on that result will return a number between 0 and 24. Finally, 1 is added to this result, so that x will be equal to a number between 1 and 25, inclusive.
If you want a random floating point number, then simply removing the Int function from this code will not work correctly. Instead, you'll need to modify the formula in this manner:
x = (Rnd() * 24) + 1
ExcelTips is your source for cost-effective Microsoft Excel training. This tip (9751) applies to Microsoft Excel 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016, 2019, and Excel in Office 365. You can find a version of this tip for the older menu interface of Excel here: Determining a Random Value.
Solve Real Business Problems Master business modeling and analysis techniques with Excel and transform data into bottom-line results. This hands-on, scenario-focused guide shows you how to use the latest Excel tools to integrate data from multiple tables. Check out Microsoft Excel 2013 Data Analysis and Business Modeling today!
Need to select a cell using a macro? Need that selection to be relative to the cell you currently have selected? Here are ...Discover More
When processing information using a macro, you may need to know if there are any other instances of Excel running on a ...Discover More
Got a workbook cluttered with all sorts of macros? Delete them and you'll make your workbook easier to manage.Discover More
FREE SERVICE: Get tips like this every week in ExcelTips, a free productivity newsletter. Enter your address and click "Subscribe."
Got a version of Excel that uses the ribbon interface (Excel 2007 or later)? This site is for you! If you use an earlier version of Excel, visit our ExcelTips site focusing on the menu interface.