Please Note: This article is written for users of the following Microsoft Excel versions: 2007, 2010, and 2013. If you are using an earlier version (Excel 2003 or earlier), this tip may not work for you. For a version of this tip written specifically for earlier versions of Excel, click here: Calculating Averages by Date.

Calculating Averages by Date

by Allen Wyatt
(last updated August 22, 2015)

3

Suppose that you have a huge worksheet that contains all the rainfall readings for a given locale for the past hundred years or so. In cells A2:A37987 you have the dates, 1 January 1903 through 31 December 2006. In cells B2:B37987 you have the measurements for each date. Further, some of the measurements can be zero (if there is no rainfall for the day) or blank (if no reading was taken that particular day). With all this information, you want to calculate the average historic rainfall for any given day of the year.

One solution involves the use of array formulas, as detailed here:

  1. Select all the cells in column A that contain dates, and assign this range the name Dates.
  2. Select all the corresponding cells in column B; these contain the rainfall data for the dates in column A. Assign this range the name Rainfall.
  3. In column D, starting in cell D2, place all the days of the year. You should end up with D2 through D366 filled with dates.
  4. In cell E2, enter the following array formula (terminate the formula by pressing Shift+Ctrl+Enter). The result of the formula is the sum of all the cells in the Rainfall range, for the date specified in cell D2.
  5. =SUM((MONTH(Dates)=MONTH(D2))*(DAY(Dates)=DAY(D2))*Rainfall)
    
  6. In cell F2, enter the following array formula (terminate the formula by pressing Shift+Ctrl+Enter). The result of the formula is the number of cells in the Rainfall range, for the date in cell D2, that have a value in them.
  7. =SUM((MONTH(Dates)=MONTH(D2))*(DAY(Dates)=DAY(D2))*(Rainfall<>""))
    
  8. In cell G2, enter the following regular formula. This is your average for the date in cell D2.
  9. =IF(F2<>0,E2/F2,"")
    
  10. Select the range E2:G2 and copy down for all the dates shown in column D.

This approach works, but it takes quite a while to calculate. This is because you effectively entered 730 array formulas, each checking over 37,000 cells. This is a lot of work, and consequently it may appear like your machine has "hung" after you complete step 7. It has not hung; it will just take it a while to complete the calculations.

To decrease the number of calculations that must be performed, you can use a variation on the above steps. Follow steps 1 through 3, as noted, and then place the following array formula into cell E2:

=AVERAGE(IF((Dates<>0)*(Rainfall<>0)*(MONTH(Dates)=MONTH(D2))*(DAY(Dates)=DAY(D2)),Rainfall))

You can then copy the formula down for all the dates shown in column D. The result of this formula is the actual average rainfall, the same as had been shown in column G in the previous approach.

You can reduce the calculation overhead even further by simply getting rid of all the table that calculates the averages for every day of the year. With your dates and rainfall in columns A and B, follow these steps:

  1. Select all the cells in column A that contain dates and assign this range the name Dates.
  2. Select all the corresponding cells in column B; these contain the rainfall data for the dates in column A. Assign this range the name Rainfall.
  3. In cell D2, place the date for which you want to check the average rainfall. (The year isn't important; only the month and day are used in the calculation.)
  4. Enter the following formula into cell E2:
=AVERAGE(IF((Dates<>0)*(Rainfall<>0)*(MONTH(Dates)=MONTH(D2))*(DAY(Dates)=DAY(D2)),Rainfall))

That's it. Now, you can change the date in cell D2 as desired, and cell E2 will always indicate the average rainfall for that date. The formula in cell E2 is the same as the formula used in the last approach; the difference is that you aren't calculating it for all the days in a year, and thus the calculation is done much quicker.

Another approach involves the use of Excel's filtering capabilities. Before you can use them properly, however, you must create a column that shows only the month and day for each date in your data. Use this formula in cell C2:

=MONTH(A2) & "-" & DAY(A2)

Now, turn on AutoFiltering (display the Data tab on the ribbon | Sort & Filter group | Filter) and use the drop-down list at the top of the new column to select the date for which you want an average. You then use the following formula, placed in any cell desired, to show the average rainfall for the selected date:

=SUBTOTAL(1,B:B)

ExcelTips is your source for cost-effective Microsoft Excel training. This tip (10319) applies to Microsoft Excel 2007, 2010, and 2013. You can find a version of this tip for the older menu interface of Excel here: Calculating Averages by Date.

Author Bio

Allen Wyatt

With more than 50 non-fiction books and numerous magazine articles to his credit, Allen Wyatt is an internationally recognized author. He  is president of Sharon Parq Associates, a computer and publishing services company. ...

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What is 6 - 4?

2016-06-12 14:44:08

paul

Correction...I discovered a several bad points buried in my 38,262 records. All is well.


2016-06-12 13:16:09

paul

all of the array formulas discuss on this page return negative (impossible) results for rainfall in Excel 2016). i.e. none of them work correctly.


2015-11-15 13:25:06

callum

How can I include the year into this function. For example may data is from 2004 to 2008. I want an average for 5th may 2005 not the 5th may from each year?


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